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Seattle- An Urban History

Racism today and in our history can be perceived differently based on many factors, including location.  I’ve had more than a few of my east coast friends wonder if and doubt that racism is just as alive here as it is anywhere else.  People tend to look at the pretty pictures of the Pacific Northwest and the liberals who live here and think “no problems there”.  That simply is not the case.  So I decided to get in on the issue a little bit to get some facts and history established.  I talked with Professor Deborah Hays of the School of Social Justice at the University of Washington, Carl Mack, former President of the Seattle King County NAACP, and Robert and Francis Terry.  Robert Terry was the first Black male teacher in Washington State and Francis was the first of four to be admitted to and successfully graduate from Seattle University as a Nurse. 

 

Professor Deborah Hays      Carl Mack     dscn3016.jpg     

 

Like any other place, we can’t look at race or racism in Seattle as purely a Black-White issue; there is a whole can of worms that needs to be sorted through and untangled to understand why Seattle (and Washington in general) appears the way it does today. 

Seattle Washington
Struggling for Equality Since 1851

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Introduction
Many who live in Seattle, Washington -and those who view it from afar- do not think racism and discrimination are issues that minorities are faced with, history proves otherwise. When traced to the 21st century, we see the present day practices and affects of prejudice and discrimination, and a never-ending awareness of -and fight for- civil rights; issues of race and discrimination in Seattle are as old as Seattle itself.

 

With history and the present, I talked to a local civil rights leader, a professor of social justice, the first Black male teacher in Washington State, and the first Black woman to graduate from Seattle University’s School of Nursing.

 

 

Early Seattle and the American Indians
Before Seattle was settled in 1851, American Indians inhabited the Pacific Northwest. Seattle saw its own internal colonialism when Territory Governor Isaac I. Stevens[1] wasted no time voiding Indian land rights and economic growth with treaties between the parties in 1854 and 1855 (Johnsonbaugh, L., 2006).

Struggles for American Indians have persisted, complicated by past treaties, subsequent court battles and unavoidable social stratification. By the 1950s; Whites were indifferent toward the plight of American Indians. Urban American Indians agreed that Indians had problems, but blamed government policies such as the Reorganization Act and the Termination Act, which challenged tribal sovereignty, seized and liquidated reservations, and relocated residents with promises of employment, education and opportunity. Instead, quality of life for American Indians in Seattle declined over the next two decades[2]. Today, while the 2000 census shows 6,000 American Indians in Seattle, more than 50 tribes call Washington home; a population over 93,000 (American Factfinder, 2005).

Deborah Hays, Professor of Social Justice at the University of Washington, has spent much of her career traveling Washington, teaching and lecturing about race in society and its many effects.  “Native Americans are completely invisible [in greater Seattle], they have no rights, no representation[3], no one concerned for their needs except for themselves, but they are not in a position in society to get the resources they need to change their position,” says Professor Hays. “High school graduation rates are at the bottom of the list, and their representation in higher education is nearly non-existent. There current circumstance is a direct reflection of their local history, dating back to the 1800s. They also have great healthcare needs that go unaddressed.”

Asian Immigration
Chinese immigrants came to Seattle in the 1860s. Asian immigration came in three waves; the Chinese in the 1860s[4], the Japanese in the 1900s, and Filipinos, in the 1920s Employment was limited to agriculture. Anti-Chinese demonstrations took place all over Washington, including Tacoma, Issaquah, and Seattle and hundreds of Chinese immigrants were forced out of the area. Japanese internment met immigrants in Washington at Camp Harmony in Puyallup, after Pearl Harbor. Though the Japanese were discriminated against in Seattle, all out disdain did not develop until 1942 (Speidel, J., 2006).
Today, 77,000 people of Asian heritage call Seattle home; Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Laos, and Pacific Islander. Hays says “it’s as conflicting of a history as any minority group in this area; the Japanese were interned, the Chinese also removed, there was much redlining through the entire area, which affected Asian immigrants and Asian Americans. There are just as many stereotypes and prejudices. They have a higher presence at the University level than most minorities but that is in part because of the idea that they are superior intellectually; they’re viewed as motivated whereas Blacks, Latinos, American Indians, aren’t.”

The Hispanic Presence
The 2000 Census shows nearly 30,000 Hispanics live in Seattle. In early Washington, Hispanics worked new railroads and in agriculture. In the late 1960s the inner-city population began to grow when families migrated from Eastern Washington to Seattle (Latino history of Washington state, 2006).

Recalls Robert Terry, Washington’s first Black teacher: “We would see the Whites bring in Mexicans from across the boarder, to work in the fields. We made $5.80 for a twelve hour shift, and the Mexicans made $2.40 for a twelve hour shift, so they would stay and send for their families because it was still more money than back home. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hispanics weren’t in the Seattle area; they were in the fields and orchards in Eastern Washington. I’m looking at what they’re doing now, getting upset that Mexican laborers are coming here now; they’ve always been here. America is based on cheap labor…why did they bring us from Africa? It’s the same thing. Nowadays we have some who think the way farm workers are treated is bad, the way immigrants are treated is unfair, but they think this is new, it’s not new…I knew their parents and their grandparents, it’s always been this way; not earning fare wages, adequate housing, discrimination in the schools- put in special education for speaking Spanish, just being treated as a human being, wasn’t something that was afforded to them.”

Latinos have been vocal in the Seattle area with the recent political debates on migrant worker rights and immigration. The region was shocked when, in a show of panethnicity, no less than 20,000 Hispanics marched on downtown Seattle in 2006 for immigrant rights.

I asked Professor Hays of the immigration debate. “It is about race,” she says, “everyone is focused on people who come from Mexico or the Middle East, they want to limit the ability of a select group. It isn’t about the American economy and protecting jobs, it’s about race. Congress and the Senate are not debating immigrants from Yugoslavia, or Britain.”

Muslims, Arabs and Seattle
As she brought up residents of Middle Eastern descent, I asked about Arabs and Muslims in Seattle. Post 9/11 for Hays is reminiscent of the aftermath of World War II, when the Japanese in the greater Seattle area [and around the country] were suspected and interned. “Now it’s Arabs and Muslims. The entire country, including Seattle[5], has convinced itself that it is justified in stereotyping Arabs and Muslims. There is little to no understanding of Arabs and Muslims, little tolerance, and little desire to change that.”

Professor Hays touches on this historical prejudice when she explains that during the Japanese internment, anyone who looked Japanese could be detained. “It is the same now with Arabs, Muslims and people from the Middle East.”

Seattle’s Black Past and Present
In 1852 Seattle’s first Black resident was Manuel Lopez, a barber shop owner; by the turn of the century there were more than 400 (Goodnow, C., 2002).

Robert Terry, born 1926, Pine Bluff Arkansas, came to Seattle after Seattle schools offered him a position, making him the first Black male teacher in the state. His wife, Francis applied to Seattle University. She ran into challenges when she enrolled in the nursing program because nursing students had to live in the nurse’s dorm; Blacks were not allowed.

The compromise? A private room.

“When I graduated they advertised it in the newspapers and on the radio, almost any radio station around, I was the first to graduate from the school of nursing, I didn’t want the publicity, I felt like they should have been graduating people in 1930, why did they wait until 1951 to graduate a Black person? I didn’t feel I deserved it, it was just something that I did, and people do it every day.”

They settled in the Central District with their five children. They say it was impossible to find a decent house outside of the dilapidated areas of town.

“Sometimes we didn’t even make it inside the houses; they saw us and flipped the sign. They had gentlemen’s agreements,” says Francis, of local, White home owners.

“There were neighborhood agreements all over Seattle; you knew what neighborhood you had no chance of living in, it didn’t matter if you were Black, Asian, Hispanic, most all of the neighborhoods that were majority White, openly kept out anyone else,” says Robert.

As early as the 1930s, Seattle neighborhoods were governed by restrictive covenants, enforced by associations, land developers, realtors and by law, and written into the deeds of thousands of homes.

“No person or persons of Asiatic, African or Negro blood, lineage or extraction shall be permitted to occupy a portion of said property or any building thereon, except a domestic servant employed by White occupants…”
Seattle’s Greenlake neighborhood, 1940-1960
(Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project, 2006)

On segregation in Seattle, Robert focuses on education, saying “at first it was not a “problem”, because there weren’t many minorities in Seattle.” He says the influx of Black families to Seattle in the 1960s set off “White flight”. He says bussing saw an increase of Black children because of White suburban teachers who didn’t want them in their classrooms. The rapid increase of Blacks came just as the civil rights movement was catching fire in Seattle. “We took on segregated businesses, boycotted downtown for not hiring Blacks…we had a local Black Panther Party and of course the NAACP.”

Carl Mack became president of the Seattle King County Chapter of the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 2002 and one of Seattle’s most innovative, controversial leaders the city has seen[6].
I asked him what the number one issue Blacks faced here in Seattle. “Education, first and foremost. The education system is horrific to put it mildly. Black males are becoming an extinct creature. It is the exception when a young Black male graduates from high school and that stereotype is messing with their psyche- inner city schools do not have the same quality of education.”

Mack says, “Racism does not discriminate in any area; it is an equal opportunity entity…given the opportunity it will equally infect that entity, regardless of what it is, education, housing, health care. You have to keep pushing the issue of race matters in this country- if you follow it from the time it was founded- from the moment America was founded, racism was founded, and racism is a very sophisticated entity, at one point it was overt, it was chains and shackles, and then it became a chameleon; it became Black Codes, it became Plessy v. Ferguson, it became the glass ceiling, the prison industrial complex, labeling Black children as dumb, racism keeps redefining itself. When it changes, when it turns, we have to be able to follow it, we have to be able to see it, and we can never be in denial about it.”
Professor Hays says that Seattle [and Washington at large] prides itself on liberalism and equality because “the state doesn’t have the same history- in certain respects- with Blacks as other states do; Slavery was not allowed in Washington State, and what that has translated into nowadays, is ‘everyone here is equal’. The reality is that racism is just as real here in Seattle as anywhere else, and its history, though not based in slavery, is still based in racism.

“Seattleites can be confused and really think that all is well here; we have a Black County Executive, we had the first Chinese American Governor, we’ve had a Black Mayor [“we just renamed the county for Dr. King and changed the logo to his likeness”, I interject] exactly…that causes people to think things are okay here, but what they don’t understand is that those people who have had that success are an exception rather than the rule.

“Seattle covers racism and prejudice in super politeness towards each other, and tolerance, but not tolerance that lends itself towards acceptance of others and their cultures, races, languages, and so on, but tolerance that says ‘I have to put up with you and I can’t say anything offensive because prejudice is not socially acceptable here’…but prejudice is socially acceptable here, because people make the choice not to see it.”

The complexities of race are still relevant in Seattle today. Though Seattle is ever-evolving, we still have yet to get to a place where disproportionality in education and economics is eradicated, and the standard of a high quality of life for minorities in Seattle is the rule, rather than the exception.

To address adequately whether members of my community look like me; what ways they look the same or different than me, is multi-layered. For me, and many Black people (and most other people of color regardless of ethnicity) in this area, “community” isn’t necessarily where one lives. That is not to say that one won’t find more Blacks in one area versus another, but, like any other urban city, Seattle has dozens upon dozens of neighborhoods. “Black Seattle” is considered the Central District, Beacon Hill, and the Rainier Valley, three of the historically lower income neighborhoods in Seattle.

The impact of bussing in Seattle during desegregation scattered a large part of the community, as families eventually moved out of the inner city. From the 1940s to the 1990s the “Black community” was in the Central District of Seattle; now some say, ‘there is no black community in Seattle’; families no longer share the same neighborhoods.

This dissipation continues today with gentrification[7]. Seattle was segregated (defacto) by legally enforceable neighborhood restrictive covenants and red-ling, enforced by land owners, developers and realtors, but by the late 1960, after the civil rights and Black power movements hit Seattle, and expectations for quality of life rose, Blacks migrated out of the inner-city (Goodnow, C., 2002).

Issues of race are often over-simplified in Seattle, so when I walk out the door every day, I am not an American Indian and an African American, I am just considered Black, and socially that is what I identify with; it is only people who know me who know I’m not just multi-racial, but multi-cultural. My community is made up of people of all ages, and it is the common ground of having school aged children that are educated together that heightens acceptance by Blacks of other groups including immigrants, Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Muslims, all who co-exist in my community, though at the same time, Black have an orientalism view of Asians, over simplifying the diversity of the ethnicities, cultures and religions; we tolerate each other but don’t know each other intimately (Schaefer, R. 2006).

As a Black woman, even as a bi-racial woman, I see people who look like me in my immediate Seattle community; we work in schools, own businesses in the community (a few out of the community); the urban essence of Seattle truly is a melting pot. The major difference that I see in my immediate community and throughout the city is that most women of color in my age range do not necessarily have a career, though they may have a job- they might work at Walgreens but they’re not a nurse. This is mostly because women of color have less opportunity to go to college, particularly after the passage of I-200[8].

Politics for the Seattle area has been interesting over the years; former Governor Gary Locke became the first Chinese-American Governor in the the country, In 1989 Norm Rice became the city’s first Black Mayor, the current King County Executive, Ron Sims, is also Black. Originally named for a slave owner, King County was officially renamed after the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in 2005. The County revealed its new seal- a likeness of King- in March 2007. As for the relationships between Blacks and government, there is no stronger testament than the gubernatorial race in 2004 between then Attorney General and Democrat Christine Gregoire, and Dino Rossi, a republican. Rossi came out with a solid platform and was generally considered a nice guy who really wanted to make a difference in the community. Christine had her platform, but she also had controversy. The race became the most contentious in memory.

Carl Mack: “The Seattle NAACP was on the top of the scene by that time, and the African American community was stronger, and confident, and when the race came around, Gregoire was suspect because of things she had done- or failed to do- as AG of the state, on behalf of people of color, particularly Black folks, and, when it came to light that she was in that sorority[9] that kept sistas out?! Oh people were like ‘hell no, we don’t know if we like her; who is this Rossi guy?’” he says laughing. “And I would say to people ‘the NAACP is a non-profit organization, we do not tell you who to vote for, we do not endorse candidates…but I can tell you who I’m going to vote for, and here’s why. And then the [local political] debates came around, and Gregoire said ‘fuck you’ [sic] to the African American community; didn’t want to come to Mt. Zion or wherever it was, she didn’t want to come to the forum in our community. At that point, we looked at the Political Action Chair [ of the NAACP], we looked at the radio station[10] and the newspaper[11] and we said ‘okay, we’re going to slaughter her ass’, we’re going to register people to vote. Rossi stayed in touch with the Black community, and Gregoire, never looked back; people asked her about the sorority and she was unapologetic for the discrimination our sistas faced on college campuses around the country because of White women like her [sic].”

“Washington, for as long as anyone cares to remember, has voted democratic, and that day, they went to the poles and voted for Rossi in overwhelming numbers and for the first time ever, every elected official, and every person considering ever running for office in their life in Seattle or in Washington, knew, they knew they could not ignore the Black vote anymore. We know who won that election, Rossi won, as it was originally certified he won by 42 votes and no doubt they were 42 Black votes. To overturn it was a travesty, but the effects will never fade from peoples minds. The day after the election, after all the TV stations were talking Rossi, Black people called in and were proud to say they voted for Rossi- I voted for him, you did, we all did. Taught her a lesson.”

“Black” political issues are not necessarily a priority for any of our elected officials unless we create a critical mass and force them to take on an issue. Sometimes it yields results, and sometimes it does not. When the school district proposed closing majority-black schools to save money, the community rallied unsuccessfully to keep them open. With school closures came gerrymandering.[12] When the city decided it needed light rail, the low income and largely black communities were opposed to an above-ground rail line, and were upset that neighborhoods in the north end of the city, which is predominately white; have a tunnel instead. Ironically, the light rail line brought hundreds of jobs with it, Blacks seeking employment on the line complain of being underemployed[13]. The major difference between our area leaders and people like me, is that leaders, such as the school board, lament the problems, whereas community members just want action, and a solution.

In Seattle, there are people who have all that they need and there are people who do not have basic needs met; King County has an annual deficit of more than 80 million dollars in basic community health and human services. The Seattle school district loses money each year, which prevents the district from providing minority children the tools they need in order to succeed equal to their White counterparts; these are issues and inadequacies that I would like to eradicate; though these issues disproportionately effect children and families of color, no local leader has stepped in and created solutions (King County Alliance for Human Services, 2006).

In my neighborhood I am treated “equally’ to my neighbors because everyone around me reflects me. Venture out slightly, or deal with White power structures, and I experience discrimination on a regular basis- some subtle and covert, some blatant and crude. When I bank in my neighborhood, I’m known by name and can cash a check of any amount; drive 6 miles north, still in Seattle, and I have to produce 2 pieces of valid identification and wait while they conduct a short review of my account- same bank, different community.

Mack says, “Racism does not discriminate in any area; it is an equal opportunity entity…given the opportunity it will equally infect that entity, regardless of what it is, education, housing, health care. You have to keep pushing the issue of race matters in this country- if you follow it from the time it was founded- from the moment America was founded, racism was founded, and racism is a very sophisticated entity, at one point it was overt, it was chains and shackles, and then it became a chameleon; it became Black Codes, it became Plessy v. Ferguson, it became the glass ceiling, the prison industrial complex, labeling Black children as dumb, racism keeps redefining itself. When it changes, when it turns, we have to be able to follow it, we have to be able to see it, and we can never be in denial about it.”

Local, mainstream media, both television and print, aren’t necessarily reflective of my community or the concerns, issues and accomplishments, and that goes for any minority group here. It seemed no one was more shocked than mainstream news media in Seattle when, in a show of panethnicity, no less than 20,000 Hispanics marched on downtown Seattle in 2006 for immigrant rights; the areas largest papers, do not have the same perspective or insight as minority news, and the same can be said for our local television news affiliates; they are outside entities (Seattle Times, 2006).

Seattle is also fortunate to have one publication The Seattle Medium Newspaper which is Black owned and operated. The owners of the Medium also have 3 radio stations which cover issues related to the Seattle area Black community and issues related to Blacks throughout Washington State. We also have Colors Northwest, The Facts, and The Scanner News.

Though Seattle, and its Black community, has changed greatly since its inception, it has invariably maintained a presence in culture and politics which has a direct impact on the greater Seattle area. As a Black community we have seen these changes continue, and the future is uncertain. As changes continue at a rapid pace, the only thing certain is that Blacks in Seattle will be a part of -and directly affected by- all of it.

So, are we Seattleites and Pacific Northwest Black folk ‘different’?  The fact is we’re all different from each other; for as many of us as there are, are as many Black experiences and realities that often get overlooked.  As Carl Mack said, racism does not discriminate.

References

American Fact Finder; Census data for Seattle and Washington.
http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
Goodnow, C. (2002) City made great strides during the civil rights movement. Seattle Post Intelligencer.
www.seattlepi.com
Johnsonbaugh, L. (2006). Indian civil rights hearing: U.S. commission on civil rights comes to Seattle. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project
www.civilrights.washington.edu
No Author. (2006). Chicano/a movement in Washington history project. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project
www.civilrights.washington.edu
No Author. Nd. Latino history of Washington state. Washington State Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation. This file made possible by The State of Washington
www.historylink.org
No Author. Nd. Seattle’s segregation story. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor Project
www.civilright.washington.edu
No Author. Nd. General Washington state history. City of Seattle.
www.seattle.gov
No Author, (2006). King County Alliance for Human Services.
www.shscoalition.org

Poochie, C. (2000). Initiative 2000 pinches state’s efforts. Seattle Times Travel Company.
http://aad.english.ucsb.edu/docs/tourists.html
Seattle Times Staff, (2006). Huge turnout for rally in Seattle. Seattle Times
http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi- bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=immigration02&date=20060502&query=im migration+rally
Speidel, J. (2006). After internment: Seattle’s debate over Japanese Americans’ rights. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project
www.civilright.washington.edu

[1] Stevens- along with others- was determined to see the northern railroad built, and removing American Indian settlements was key to this endeavor. By the start of 1856, the American Indians attacked Seattle in a cry of protest. All-out war ensued; with settlers hiding in block housing and aboard the Navy Sloop of War Decatur; stationed in response to the rising tensions. Though outnumbered, the settlers survived, and nearly 500 American Indians were forcefully relocated to another part of the state; this is known as ‘The Battle of Seattle’. Treaty negotiations for tribes along the Puget Sound stripped them of land, fishing rights and the ability migrate seasonally throughout the state.

[2] In 1970, in a coordinated effort, dozens of local members of the American Indian Movement, a pan-Indian organization, drove just north of Seattle to Fort Lawton and collectively laid siege to the grounds, claiming it in the name of all American Indians “by right of discovery.” In the present day Puget Sound region, while American Indians live in Seattle’s urban areas, more than 50 tribes call Washington home.

[3] In 1977 the United States Commission on Civil Rights came to Seattle and convened a two-day hearing on the condition of American Indians in Washington State. Over the two day period, the commission heard testimony from American Indians addressing inadequacies in health care, housing, public safety, increased racial harassment, and education. In the end, many agree that the accomplishments of the commission’s investigation are questionable; no new legislation or major policy initiatives arose as a direct result.

[4] In 1882, the growing tensions between Chinese immigrants and Americans culminated in the Chinese Exclusion Act. The United States government declared Chinese immigrant laborers a threat to “the good order of certain localities within the territory.” This meant that the Chinese were barred from entering the United States for a term of ten years.
[5] Because the US Census does not collect data on Middle Eastern or African Heritage, nor Islamic faith, it is hard to know exactly how many live in Seattle, however in my every day life I see people from all over Africa, Arabs, Muslims and others of Middle East descent and it is clear that Seattle, versus Bellevue, Kent, Tacoma, and other cities, has the largest concentration.

[6] He took on a local department store for selling a game called “Ghettopoly”, referred to the King County Sherriff-turned-Congressman Dave Reichert as “Bull Connor”, referred to the Superintendent of the local Kent City School District as a “prison warden”, for the district’s use of handcuffs on children of color, and led a march that shut-down mid-day traffic as Mack- with hundreds of supporters, stormed an onramp and burst onto Interstate 5.

[7] the process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle-class or affluent people into deteriorating areas that often displaces earlier usually poorer residents
[8] Initiative 200 Prohibits affirmative action in public employment, education and contracting. It was passed in 1998 as in considered the leading cause of decline of minorities, particularly those in higher education, in Washington State Universities.
[9] Kapa Delta at the University of Washington, which Gregoire was a member, excluded black women as members.
[10] 1420 KRIZ Black-owned radio station
[11] The Seattle Medium News, Seattle’s Black-owned newspaper
[12] The redrawing of enrolment lines for specific schools in specific neighborhoods, which radically changed schools’ demographics, almost overnight.
[13] Black workers applying for Light Rail positions complain that they were put in low-paying positions that did not take into account their education, special training, expertise or experience.

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9 Comments leave one →
  1. Phyllis permalink
    May 30, 2009 8:38 am

    Wow! Thanks for putting this up! What a great resource, and well-cited.

  2. June 5, 2009 6:28 am

    Thank you for Urban History, I am new to your writing and am enjoying it. It is sad that Frances Terry was one of only four nurses admitted to Seattle U many years ago and this Sunday, as my daughter an African American accepts here degree from Seattle U, she is one of only three of African ancestry to be admitted in her cohort and one of two to complete. Though she made the Dean’s List and applied with a great application, she was initially rejected, but being one that does not take rejection lightly or laying down, she got herself into the coveted Nursing Program. Any who has been hospitalized in Seattle area knows that being nursed by one of any African descent is as scarce as hens teeth. We must encourage the sciences and move more of our students in this direction. As the result of her taking her studies and career seriously, she has been gotten a plum assignment for her practicum and is sure to get the position she desires. She next thinks she will become a midwife, there is reportedly only one who is of African ancestry in the entire state. Not good.

  3. June 5, 2009 6:39 am

    Did you know that even though Affirmative Action was voted out in Washington, the Football stadium must contract affirmatively? On the last day of many days of legislative wrangling, I negotiated this amended language into the bill that passed. So when the people of Washington voted for the stadium the likewise voted for the affirmative action language.

  4. j-rok permalink
    June 8, 2009 5:37 pm

    This is some awesome information! Great post.

  5. August 7, 2009 3:59 pm

    Very nice! I’m a little surprised that you don’t cite Quintard Taylor’s The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle’s Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era. Another very interesting resource is the documentary done by SCCC and Bill Kossen called “There Goes the Neighborhood Again”, which I see you can watch online at the MOHAI section of seattlechannel.org.

  6. jenn permalink
    November 10, 2009 3:54 pm

    This looks like a great article! Just one thing though–Deborah Hays works for the UW School of Social at the UW–it is not the School of Social Justice. Maybe you were trying to be facetious?

  7. Sable permalink
    November 10, 2009 5:25 pm

    Actually, no the school of Social Justice is within the School of Social Work. According to Deborah Hays.

  8. Hector permalink
    November 30, 2009 12:20 pm

    Excellent background for those of us who have never been [and may never come, despite your evident personal warmth, practicality & intelligence] to Seattle. Kia ora.

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